Isoniazid is an antibiotic drug that is used to treat and prevent tuberculosis (TB). It is a first-line drug, meaning it is the first drug of choice to treat TB. Isoniazid is also used to prevent active TB in people who have been recently exposed to the bacteria. It is an essential part of the standard four-drug regimen for the treatment of TB.
Isoniazid is a prodrug, meaning it is not active until it is metabolized in the body. It is converted to an active form, isonicotinic acid, which then acts on the TB bacteria. Isoniazid works by blocking the production of an enzyme that is necessary for the bacteria to survive. This stops the bacteria from multiplying and eventually kills it.
Isoniazid is taken orally and is generally well-tolerated. The most common side effects are nausea, vomiting, headache, and dizziness. Rarely, more serious side effects can occur, including liver damage and peripheral neuropathy. People who have a history of liver disease, HIV, or diabetes may be at greater risk of these side effects.
The active ingredient in isoniazid is isoniazid. It also has several synonyms, including isonicotinylhydrazine, isonicotinylhydrazide, isonicotinic acid hydrazide, and isonicotinylhydrazide hydrochloride.
Isoniazid is an important drug in the fight against TB. It is a safe and effective drug when taken as directed and can help prevent the spread of the disease. It is important to take the entire course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that the bacteria is completely eliminated.
If you have any questions or concerns about isoniazid or its side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. They can help you understand the risks and benefits of taking this medication.